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      The stats tell it all: The number one cause of death in the United States is heart disease. That’s right, more than any other disease – even cancer (a close second) – heart disease is the most likely to kill you. The United States is currently facing a “diabesity” epidemic, or a substantial increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome leading to diabetes and obesity, all serious risk factors for heart disease.

      According to the American Heart Association, every 34 seconds someone in the US dies of a heart attack. By the time you finish reading this paragraph, another person will have lost their life. Sadly, many people do not even know they have heart disease until they experience a heart attack. These facts alone make Heart Health a critical topic to understand.

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      The gut-skin connection is very significant. Inflammatory processes present in the gut may manifest on the skin. Toxins are expelled with sweat, and can cause the skin to react. Like the inside of the digestive tract, the skin is covered in microbes which can be neutral, protective or pathogenic. Skin reaction may reflect what is going on inside the body. Therefore treating skin conditions only from the outside will often be ineffective and lead to other chronic issues.

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Digestive Dysfunction = Gut Gone Bad!

Filed in Adults, Cancer, Chronic Disease, Constipation, Diarrhea, Digestive Health, Enzymes, Heart Disease, Heartburn, Immune System, Indigestion, Inflammation, Liver, Preventable Issues, Uncategorized | Posted by Brenda Watson on 03/21/2017


digestive dysfunction girl - brenda watson.com

As we move into the third week of Colon Cancer Awareness Month it’s time to discuss what can go wrong in your gut. Last week I presented a very brief overview of how a healthy gut works. This week I’d like to help you recognize signs of digestive dysfunction. The result is multiple disease processes like constipation, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, myriad chronic health conditions and even cancer.

However there is one critical point I must make, and I can’t stress this too strongly. In my 30+ years of working closely with people experiencing all levels of digestive issues, I have seen far too many cases of colon cancer. The unfortunate thing I’ve noticed time and again was this – when a person was diagnosed with colon cancer – they thought they had healthy digestion! Needless to say, they were floored by the diagnosis. When I questioned them further, I might hear “I had a little indigestion here and there” or “sometimes I was constipated”. Often they didn’t notice anything that might have tipped them off to a life-threatening situation brewing inside them.

That’s why it’s so important to truly understand and appreciate what really happens in your own body to do with digestion and absorption. The colon can be very quiet for a long time as disease smolders within. I believe this knowledge has fueled my passion to continue, day after day, to implore people to recognize that their gut is literally the core of their health.

What can go wrong? Intestinal toxemia = poisoning of the intestines!

Intestinal toxemia occurs when the bacteria in the gut act upon undigested food. This interaction can produce toxic chemical and gases. These toxins, in turn, can damage the mucosal lining, resulting in increased intestinal permeability (leaky gut). The net result is that the toxins are then able to spread throughout the body via the bloodstream.

7 common habits that may be poisoning your intestines:

  1. Inadequate amounts of living foods and quality proteins in our dietary choices
  2. Not chewing our foods thoroughly
  3. Drinking with meals
  4. Over-consumption of processed foods (including sugar!)
  5. Overeating in general
  6. Eating foods that we know we are sensitive or allergic to
  7. Inadequate water consumption between meals resulting in low-grade dehydration

Poisoning your intestines is a process that progresses over time. The good news is that you can reverse that process by changing your behaviors.

In the words of Dr. John Matsen, ND, “If you don’t digest your food quickly, some microorganism will digest it for you, making toxins.” These toxins created inside our bodies are called “endotoxins”. I want you to know that they are every bit as damaging to your body as external environmental toxins. We call those “exotoxins”, and are very familiar with the dangers of substances like pesticides, radon or car exhaust.

If the above mentioned habits continue for an extended period of time, the certain result is an overtaxed digestive system. That happens whether you experience mild to severe digestive symptoms, or no symptoms at all. Supporting organs such as your liver and pancreas become overburdened.

Ultimately, your once healthy gut begins its downhill spiral toward altered digestive function. Diagnoses like constipation, diarrhea, IBS or even IBD, along with cardiovascular issues, hormone imbalances, arthritis, fibromyalgia – the list goes on and on. And yes, even cancer.

This is primarily how the sad tale of disease begins – and if you truly understand this, you have the power to change your story and restore your health once more!

Digestive dysfunction. Please don’t let this happen!

Some major dysfunctional results of poor habits:

  • Deficiency of HCL – disrupted protein digestion and decreased stomach pH allowing harmful organisms access to the body
  • Pancreatic insufficiency – reduced enzyme and bicarbonate secretion – inefficient digestion of foods, reduced absorption of nutrients
  • Imbalanced intestinal pH – also reduces proper food breakdown and absorption and compromises immunity

You may think I’m being overdramatic – linking almost all variations of chronic disease processes to the gut. In two words – I’m NOT! Daily more and more supporting evidence is disclosed in clinical trials that prove that your digestion – breaking down and absorbing the nutrients you intake – is absolutely essential to every function in your body.

The premise is so simple it’s unbelievable that many Americans still fail to see the relationship between what goes in their mouths and the way they feel and function. As I mentioned, I think it’s largely due to the forgiving nature of the gut. Symptoms often don’t occur until quite a large amount of damage has been done. And it also has to do with our society’s obsession with simply eliminating symptoms. Many people don’t seem to care to understand what may have been causing that discomfort in the first place. Nexium be gone!

Next post I will give you an action list of exactly what you need to do to understand and heal your gut! Until then, eat lots of living foods!

My Own Colon Awareness Story

Filed in Adults, Antibiotics, Cancer, Digestive Health, Immune System, Preventable Issues, Probiotics & Gut Flora, Uncategorized | Posted by Brenda Watson on 03/07/2017


Colon Cancer Awareness Day - brendawatson.com

Since March is Colon Cancer Awareness Month I thought I would offer a series of posts this month focused on colon health. Initially, I would like to share with you some personal challenges that led me to the conclusion that your gut is the core of your health. As the truth of this concept became more and more clear to me, I became passionate about educating people on the importance of colon health. I’ve dedicated my whole career to this path, which has spanned over 25 years.

There are two occurrences I believe shaped my desire to first learn, and then teach that the colon is the reason you experience health or ultimately, disease.

The first was when I was in my mother’s womb she lost her son (my brother) at 1 year old to a colon problem. He died when his colon kinked and the doctors did not “catch it” in time. This was devastating to say the least for my mother. I believe that in many ways we absorb whatever is going on with our mother during pregnancy. I feel this made a big imprint on my thoughts even though I didn’t put this together until much later in life.

The other is that I was an unhealthy child from the start of my life. I was given an abundance of antibiotics early, which destroyed my good bacteria, impacting my digestive and immune system, leading to many health problems.

By the time I was born in 1953, antibiotics were already being widely prescribed for children. Of course there is a time and place for these prescriptions in our world. However, having multiple throat and ear infections as many children do I lived on the “pink stuff”. I am convinced those antibiotics instigated the health decline that continued well into my adult life.

By the time I was in elementary school I began to experience migraine headaches, and my hair fell out in patches all over my head. Quite embarrassing to say the least. Of course none of this was thought to have anything to do with my colon. My health conditions continued with chronic fatigue in high school and in my 20’s, hormonal issues and kidney problems.

You may say – well how was this related to your colon? I didn’t realize until I started looking into natural solutions in my 20’s that I had been severely constipated my whole life! In my family we never talked about bowel movements. No one mentioned (or knew) or that it was healthy (and important) to have at least one every day.

Screening helps to prevent colorectal cancer.

As I embarked on a path to change my diet, began to detoxify my digestive system and focus on daily elimination I began to feel better and better. This was in the 1980’s. At that time it was still considered weird to even talk about bowel movements. But as my health and vitality began to return I was convinced even back then, with little supporting scientific research, that my out of balance colon was at the core of my health issues. This proved to be true as my health continued to improve at a remarkable pace.

As a result of my own healing path, I became more aware of how many people might also enjoy better health if only they could cleanse their digestive system, restore and maintain good bacteria in their gut, and support healthy elimination. I realized that colon problems and cancer could be greatly reduced if more education and attention were put on this simple process.

My point is this – the gut is clearly the core of our health. After all, we extract the nutrients from our food that feed the cells, tissues and organs of our body in our digestive system. Think about it – every bite of food we eat, every sip of liquid we drink, goes to the gut first.

The critical question is – how do we keep our guts healthy so they continue to nourish us? No one wants to end up with colon disease!

There are a variety of tools necessary to accomplish this task. In the next few blogs I intend to arm you with simple tools that are absolutely essential to keeping your digestive system healthy.

Since March is Colon Cancer Awareness Month – what better time to do this?

A Bright Idea – with Dogs

Filed in Cancer, Cats, Dogs - Pets, Environmental Toxins, Probiotics & Gut Flora | Posted by Brenda Watson on 12/04/2015


Dogs are a huge part of my life. My husband Stan and I share our home with three King Charles Cavalier Spaniels and they are a source of constant joy, giggles, and craziness. Their sweet spirits actually inspired our new company, Vital Planet Pets.

At Vital Planet we offer the highest quality dog supplements that can be found anywhere. From exemplary probiotic formulas to condition specific nutritional/herbal/energetic formulations, our products are life changing and effective for our canine friends.

We even have a great cat probiotic! Cats don’t despair, we’re coming out with a full line for you in 2016.

Which leads me to this week’s blog topic. I have a great present for dog lovers out there! I hope you enjoy reading this article that I found in the Wall Street Journal as much as I did entitled “Why Dogs Are Some Scientists’ New Best Friends”.

Dogs actually develop a lot of the same diseases that we humans do, making them valuable subjects for research.

Hold on now, don’t freak – we’re not talking lab rat experiments here. No scalpels or cages! What’s so cool about this research is it’s being conducted using saliva samples for DNA testing and behavioral observation.

The University of Massachusettes Medical School is launching a study of canine genetics, behavior and personality. Interestingly named Darwin’s Dogs, the team is attempting to answer important questions about human conditions like obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism. Somehow I wouldn’t have imagined that. Seems Dobermans are known for “canine compulsive disorder” that’s similar to OCD in humans!

When we at Vital Planet talk to people about the value of ongoing maintenance of the health of their dogs rather than waiting for nasty disease to show up, I always remind them that dogs are essentially like us. They have the same endocrine system, the same organs, a skeletal system, a nervous system. One major difference is that they have a shorter digestive tract and longer teeth, which impacts their food requirements of course. However, the similarities far outweigh the differences.

In this article I enjoyed learning that a dog’s DNA is so close to ours that they can be our best friends in even more ways than ever. For example, recent research on osteosarcoma, the most common type of bone cancer in children and frequently found in dogs showed that the composition of the tumors in children compared to those in dogs was virtually indistinguishable. Collecting more specimens from dogs could result in positive progress in understanding the etiology of this heartbreaking disease process.

One of our Vital Planet products, Daily Detox, is designed to support healthy functioning of a dog’s liver. Along with probiotics, the liver is our front line defense against our poisonous environment. If you think about it, dogs are even more toxic than we are. They’re smaller and closer to the ground. They are exposed to the same pollutants in their environments as we are, at closer range in some cases. Studies have been done clearly showing their increased toxic levels. This comparison information can allow us to better understand the impact that these toxins are having on humans on a day-to-day basis.

There’s actually a company called Dognition that enrolls dog owners as “citizen scientists”. The humans are asked to have their dogs complete different games or specific tasks. Then the collected data is submitted.

I must say, I was wondering how reliable that data might be. Apparently studies have also been conducted comparing data validity between lab and this type of at-home collection. The citizen-scientist data was found “useful and reliable”. I love this!

Dr. Hare from Dognition is looking at the environmental or behavioral factors that affect both the human and their dog. He calls this concept “one health” and defines that as ‘how animal research can help human health, and vice versa’.

For far too long an animal’s position in research has been a frightful one-way street. It delights me to imagine that our awareness is expanding in these avenues to recognize our dogs much more as beings deserving of respect and appreciation – for their salivary DNA and even their behaviors!

HOPE after Cancer – A Clinical Trial

Filed in Adults, Cancer, Chronic Disease, Dietary Fiber, Digestive Health, Enzymes, Immune System, Omega-3 & Fish Oil, Prebiotics, Probiotics & Gut Flora, Ulcerative Colitis | Posted by Brenda Watson on 07/30/2015


I’m writing to you today as I fly home from Baltimore. My assistant, Dr. Jemma Sinclaire and I traveled there to officially begin a clinical trial that has been in the works for a couple of years now. I hope you enjoy the story of how this project came to be.

Years ago I met Dr. Amando Sardi. He’s an extraordinary gastroenterologist and oncological surgeon at Mercy Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. Dr. Sardi and his team have perfected a surgical technique that has saved countless lives. When cancer is found in the gastrointestinal tract, many times a part of the intestine needs to be removed, along with other organs, like the gall bladder, spleen, and/or parts of the liver or stomach that may also be cancerous. Removal of parts of the intestine is called “bowel resection”.

Historically, after a surgery of this type, a person would then have to undergo whole body chemotherapy, a difficult and extremely taxing process to endure. It was not uncommon for the cancer to be technically gone, however the patient may have passed away from complications of the treatment.

Dr. Sardi’s unique treatment “perfuses the peritoneum” with chemotherapy. That means that after he removes the obvious cancerous growths and parts of the intestines that are involved, he fills the intestinal cavity with the cancer killing drug instead of allowing it to travel the entire body. In this way, the medicine is focused in the exact area where any remaining cancer cells may be, sparing the rest of the body from the debilitating side effects of chemo.

The total procedure is called Cytoreductive Surgery with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) and Dr. Sardi has an amazing survival rate when he performs this protocol. However, after the initial healing phase, the quality of life the patients experience is often “in the toilet”. Sadly, chronic diarrhea is often unrelenting.

The term “Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS)” is used to describe those symptoms that may arise after bowel resection, diarrhea being one of the most persistent.

Initially, after a dramatic procedure of this type, there is a period of time during which a person’s body is stabilizing and adjusting, attempting to compensate for functional loss. It constantly amazes me how the human body is able to recover from that level of trauma.

Then the next phase of healing begins. Dr. Sardi’s vision, to be explored during the clinical trial, is to introduce appropriate nutritional support, through diet and supplementation along with targeted medication that will help a person to experience the highest quality of life possible. Surviving cancer surgery is one thing. Living life after cancer with a compromised intestinal tract is quite another.

This clinical trial was birthed in a conversation Dr. Sardi and I had about what might be possible for these people who had already endured so very much.

Through the Renew HOPE Foundation, Dr. Leonard Smith, Jemma and I along with Dr. Sardi’s team have designed a one-year research project that includes 10 patients who are all at least 2 years post surgery. Their cancer markers are within normal ranges. They are grateful to be alive.

We are teaching them about the HOPE Formula (High fiber, Omega-3s, Probiotics and digestive Enzymes) which I believe are the foundation of digestive health – for everyone.

Additionally we’re using aspects of the Skinny Gut Diet and are helping these people to rebalance the bacteria in their remaining bowel. It always comes back to supporting the good bacteria when you’re goal is improving digestive wellness and supporting the immune system.

I hope that soon we will be able to relate to you that the quality of life these people experience will be much improved.

I felt truly honored to meet with our first 5 patients along with Dr. Sardi and his excellent team, and I look forward to our next year together. I promise to keep you updated.

 

 

Diverse Gut Bacteria Linked to Better Estrogen Metabolite Levels

Filed in Cancer, Human Microbiome | Posted by Brenda Watson on 10/22/2014


The diversity of your gut bacteria refers to the abundance of different types of microbes. As a rule, the more diverse your gut microbes, the healthier you are. A recent study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism further supports this idea. Researchers from the National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute discovered that gut bacterial diversity may play a role in the eventual development of breast cancer.

“In women who had more diverse communities of gut bacteria, higher levels of estrogen fragments were left after the body metabolized the hormone, compared to women with less diverse intestinal bacteria,” noted James Goedert, MD, one of the researchers. “This pattern suggests that these women may have a lower risk of developing breast cancer.”

Could it be that our bacteria take over our living environments as a protective measure over our health? I would certainly not be surprised. I like the idea of having an arThe researchers collected fecal and urine samples from 60 postmenopausal women aged 55 to 69 and analyzed them for the ratio of estrogen fragments to estrogen, which is a known predictor of breast cancer. my of beneficial bacteria surrounding me at all times.

What does gut bacterial diversity have to do with estrogen and breast cancer, you might ask? Well, bacteria in the gut actually metabolize estrogen that is excreted into the digestive tract, affecting the balance of estrogen and estrogen metabolites. Some estrogen is even reabsorbed from the gut into circulation, which can affect overall estrogen levels in the body. This new research suggests that gut bacterial diversity may play an important role on estrogen levels and breast cancer risk.

The best way to improve gut bacterial diversity is to eat a diet high in foods that replenish gut bacteria (fermented foods) and foods that feed good bacteria (those foods high in prebiotic fibers). Adding probiotic and fiber supplements will also help. As we see here, optimizing gut health is the key to better total-body health.

High-Carbohydrate Diet Triggers Colon Cancer

Filed in Cancer, Diet | Posted by Brenda Watson on 09/08/2014


Studies have linked the high-carbohydrate Western diet to colorectal cancer, but scientists have been unsure of just how carbs may trigger the development of the disease. In a recent study published in the journal Cell, researchers discovered that microbes inside the gut are able to metabolize carbohydrates from food in such a way that causes intestinal cells to form tumors.

Using an animal model of mice genetically prone to develop colorectal cancer, researchers found that the mice fed a low-carbohydrate diet or given antibiotics had significantly less tumors than those on a typical Western diet. The fact that antibiotics had an effect is evidence that gut microbes play a central role. The study suggests that a low-carbohydrate diet could prevent a common type of colorectal cancer in humans.

“Because hereditary colorectal cancer is associated with aggressive and rapid tumor development, it is critical to understand how major environmental factors such as microbes and diet interact with genetic factors to potentially affect disease progression,” noted Alberto Martin, PhD, lead researcher.

Almost one in 15 Westerners will develop colorectal cancer, a disease that occurs in much higher rates in countries that have switched to a Western-style diet. Although a highly treatable disease when caught early, without regular screening it can go undetected. Hopefully this study leads to more insight about how it can be prevented in the first place.

“By providing a direct link between genetics and gut microbes, our findings suggest that a diet reduced in carbohydrates as well as alterations in the intestinal microbial community could be beneficial to those individuals who are genetically predisposed to colorectal cancer,” stated Martin.

Studies in humans will hopefully follow this research. In the meantime, a low-carbohydrate diet might not be a bad idea for people genetically prone to colon cancer. The low-carbohydrate diet should include plenty of nonstarchy vegetables and low-sugar fruits that provide plenty of fiber and phytonutrients.

Great News—Colon Cancer Incidence Decreasing

Filed in Cancer, General, Preventable Issues | Posted by Brenda Watson on 04/21/2014


I love spreading the word when good news comes out. Sadly, it seems the Internet is ripe with bad news these days. Shocking headlines get more clicks, so sometimes it can feel as though bad news is all there is. Today I have some good news to help balance the onslaught of negative headlines. According to a recent report by the American Cancer Society, colon cancer rates have dropped 30 percent in the United States in the last 10 years. That’s great news, for sure.

The researchers attribute the decrease to the increase in screening colonoscopies, particularly in older adults. Only 19 percent of adults aged 50 to 75 got colonoscopies in 2000 compared to 55 percent in 2010. That’s an impressive increase. Colon cancer is the third most common cancer and also the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Because colon cancer develops slowly, screening for colon polyps with routine colonoscopy is one of the best ways to protect against its advancement.

Experts call for an even further decrease, however. “These continuing drops in incidence and mortality show the lifesaving potential of colon cancer screening; a potential that an estimated 23 million Americans between ages 50 and 75 are not benefitting from because they are not up to date on screening,” said Richard Wender, MD, Chief Cancer Control Officer of the American Cancer Society.

If you are age 50 or over and you haven’t yet scheduled your colonoscopy, do so today—and every 10 years thereafter unless your doctor tells you that you need more frequent screening. Sure, colonoscopies aren’t exactly a walk in the park, but they save lives. Schedule yours today.

 

A Body Shape Index (ABSI) One-Ups the Conventional Body Mass Index (BMI)

Filed in Adults, Cancer, Diabetes, General, Heart Disease, Obesity | Posted by Brenda Watson on 03/24/2014


You’ve probably heard of the Body Mass Index (BMI) before—you know, the number calculated from your weight and height that puts you either in the healthy weight, overweight, or obese category. It turns out that researchers have questioned the validity of the BMI as an effective tool because it doesn’t take into consideration different body types and thus, doesn’t accurately reflect body fat.

In 2009 a medical doctor, Jesse Krakauer, MD and his engineer son, Nir Krakauer, PhD, developed a new measure that incorporates abdominal obesity—one of the main risk factors for many chronic diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, liver disease, and certain forms of cancer. They call it A Body Shape Index (ABSI). It takes into consideration height and weight, but also waist circumference, an indicator of abdominal fat.

In a recent study published in the Public Library of Sciences ONE journal, ABSI was found to be more effective than the currently used BMI as a strong indicator of risk of death. People with the highest ABSI were at a 61 percent higher rate of death than the people with the lowest ABSI. You can calculate your ABSI here. We will likely hear more about A Body Shape Index as it begins to replace the Body Mass Index as a more accurate measure of disease risk.

Gut Microbe Imbalance Linked to Colon Cancer

Filed in Adults, Cancer, Conditions, Dietary Fiber, Digestive Health, Probiotics & Gut Flora | Posted by lsmith on 01/08/2014


The gut bacteria composition of people at risk for colorectal cancer differs from that of healthy people, according to a recent study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.1 Researchers from the New York University School of Medicine analyzed stool samples from 141 patients—47 of which had colorectal cancer—and found lower bacterial diversity in patients with colon cancer.

Bacterial diversity is the hallmark of a healthy gut. The more diverse the gut bacteria, the less likely potential pathogens can gain the upper hand and lead to infection. This study suggests that lower gut diversity may also lead to increases in certain bacteria and decreases in others; colon cancer patients had higher levels of Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas bacteria than did healthy subjects. Fusobacterium has been found to contribute to colitis,2 which involves inflammation of the colon, and both Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas have been linked to periodontal disease,3 which itself has been linked to colon cancer.4 Perhaps based on the latest research, gingival and oral cultures may soon be a preventative biomarker of inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer.

Patients with colon cancer were also found to have decreased levels of the Clostridia class of bacteria. You may recognize the name Clostridia because one bacterium from this class—Clostridium difficile—is a major pathogen that can be deadly. Not all Clostridia are harmful, however. One particular Clostridia family (Lachnosporaceae) and one bacterium within this family (Corpococcus) are both known to efficiently ferment dietary fiber and complex carbohydrates, producing butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid well known to be protective of colon cancer due to its nourishing effects on the lining of the colon. In addition to helping feed the cells that line the colon, butyrate enters the cells and prevents damaged cells from becoming cancerous. Also telling, Clostridia have been found to be less abundant in colon tumors when compared to normal adjacent tissue.3

“In conclusion, this survey of the gut microbiota found that colorectal cancer risk was associated with decreased bacterial diversity in feces; depletion of Gram-positive, fiber-fermenting Clostridia; and increased presence of Gram-negative, pro-inflammatory genera Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas,” stated the researchers. “Because of the potentially modifiable nature of the gut bacteria, our findings may have implications for colorectal cancer prevention.”

Maintaining gut balance is crucial for protection against many conditions, digestive or otherwise. Administration of probiotics (beneficial bacteria) and prebiotics (fibers that feed beneficial bacteria in the gut) has been found to have a protective effect against colon cancer.6 One main reason probiotics and prebiotics are so beneficial is because they promote increased production of butyrate in the colon, just as the beneficial Clostridia do. Achieving gut balance is one of the most important things you can do for your health.

 

References

  1. Ahn J, Sinha R, Pei Z, et al., “Human gut microbiome and risk of colorectal cancer.” J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Dec; online ahead of print.
  2. Ohkusa T, Okayasu I, Ogihara T, et al., “Induction of experimental ulcerative colitis by Fusobacterium varium isolated from colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis.” Gut. 2003 Jan;52(1):79-83.
  3. Signat, Rogues C, Poulet P, et al., “Fusobacterium nucleatum in periodontal health and disease.” Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2011;13(2):25-36.
  4. Ahn J, Segers S, Hayes RB, “Periodontal disease, Porphyromonas gingivalis serum antibody levels and orodigestive cancer mortality.” Carcinogenesis. 2012 May;33(5):1055-8.
  5. Kostic AD, Gevers D, Pedamallu CS, et al., “Genomic analysis identifies association of Fusobacterium with colorectal carcinoma.” Genome Res. 2012 Feb;22(2):292-8.
  6. Wollowski I, Rechkemmer G, Pool-Zobel BL, “Protective role of probiotics and prebiotics in colon cancer.” Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Feb;73(2 Suppl):451S-455S.